After spending more time with my 2yo boy, I have been teaching him some basic knowledges by stage at home. So far, I am quite satisfied with his progress. Amongst the subjects, I find "colours" is the most challenging part. Why I said so? For some colours, like pink and purple, or orange and red, they may look alike (depends on the printing quality and light reflection) in some cases. Besides, each main colour code can also be categorised from the lightest to the darkest shade. I don't expect my boy to recognise the names (words) but I just wonder how to let him identify the different colours through visual memory.
It took my boy 1 week to learn the colours (3 months ago). Firstly, in order to make him understand the concept of "what is Colour", I teach him from a book (strongly recommend this one: Bill Martin Jr/Eric Carle's Brown Bear, brown bear, what do you see?). Then I keep on practising with him via a set of colourful stacking cups (his toy during 8-12mths. How to play it with 2 yo? Question game, ie Can u tell me what colour is it? one cup by one cup to form a tower like pic above). At such age, his curiosity to learn new things is at the peak. My boy loves to share about his new "knowledge" with us. For instance, he sees a red car, he will say "it is red"; he sees a picture of green frog, he will say "it is green". Sometimes, if he spots a colour like grey which I don't teach him yet, he will ask "what colour is it?". Of course, children always get motivated if they are praised. I never forget to say "good boy" or "good job" as a little encouragement. To keep his effort up.
Now, he's very good at describe things that he sees especially on the road. He is so excited to tell us all kinds of transport as well as their colours ie blue bus, white van, red car, brown lorry or green taxi. It helps him to learn faster when the knowledge extends to the surroundings (not just limit to books and toys).